Incoherent scatter textbook

Tuomo Nygrén: Introduction to Incoherent Scatter Measurements

This textbook is the first English version of lectures on 'radar theory' given at the University of Oulu in 1994. The English version was produced because there seemed to be a general lack of basic educational material on incoherent scatter measurements. The book is available from the publisher at the address below.

The emphasis of the book is not in the theory of incoherent scattering but rather in the mathematical principles of the analogue and digital data processing in the radar receiver, in the theory of ambiguity functions and in the most important modulation methods. No previous knowledge of signal theory is assumed; it is only supposed that the reader is familiar with the Fourier transform.

  • Number of pages 140
  • Publisher: Invers Oy, P.O. Box 105, FIN-99601 Sodankylä, Finland, e-mail:
  • ISBN: 951-97489-0-3
  • ISSN: 1239-3673


  • Scattering process and the radar
    • Sattering from density fluctuations
    • Thomson scattering
    • Scattering from a moving electron
    • Incoherent scattering
    • Generation of high transmitting power
    • Radiation pattern of a parabolic antenna
    • Antenna gain and effective aperture
    • Monostatic and multistatic radar
    • Radar equation
  • Signal processing
    • Radar receiver
    • Signal and its Fourier transform
    • Signal power
    • Autocorrelation function and power spectrum
    • Frequency mixing
    • Mixing to zero frequency
    • Hilbert transform
    • Autocorrelation function andpower spectrum of a complex signal
    • Linear system
    • Transfer function of a boxcar filter. Definition of pass band.
    • Bandwidth of an incoherent scatter signal
  • Theory of ambiguity functions
    • Two-dimensional ambiguity functions
    • Examples of two-dimensional ambiguity functions in monostatic case
    • Range ambiguity functions
    • Lag ambiguity functions
    • Spectral ambiguity functions
  • Classical modulation methods
    • Lag profile matrix
    • Data sampling
    • Pulse codes
    • Gating
    • Barker codes
    • Barker-coded pulse codes
    • Barker decoder
    • Long-pulse codes
  • Alternating codes
    • Working principle of alternating codes
    • Properties of alternating codes
    • Walsh matrix
    • Search of alternating codes
    • Efficiency of alternating codes
  • Noise and offset


Viimeksi päivitetty: 16.9.2011